hidrokarbon siri metana(alkane, Hidrokarbon parafinik)

english hydrocarbons of methane series
Hydrogen cyanide
Hydrogen-cyanide-2D.svg
Ball and stick model of hydrogen cyanide
Spacefill model of hydrogen cyanide
Names
IUPAC name
  • Formonitrile (substitutive)
  • Hydridonitridocarbon (additive)
Other names
  • Formic anammonide
  • Hydrocyanic acid
  • Prussic acid
  • Methanenitrile
Identifiers
CAS Number
  • 74-90-8 ☑Y
3D model (JSmol)
  • Interactive image
3DMet B00275
ChEBI
  • CHEBI:18407 ☒N
ChemSpider
  • 748 ☒N
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.747
EC Number 200-821-6
KEGG
  • C01326 ☒N
MeSH Hydrogen+Cyanide
PubChem CID
  • 768
RTECS number MW6825000
UNII
  • 2WTB3V159F ☑Y
UN number 1051
InChI
  • InChI=1S/CHN/c1-2/h1H ☒N
    Key: LELOWRISYMNNSU-UHFFFAOYSA-N ☒N
SMILES
  • C#N
Properties
Chemical formula
HCN
Molar mass 27.0253 g/mol
Appearance Very pale, blue, transparent liquid or colorless gas
Odor Oil of bitter almond
Density 0.687 g mL−1
Melting point −14 to −12 °C; 7 to 10 °F; 259 to 261 K
Boiling point 25.6 to 26.6 °C; 78.0 to 79.8 °F; 298.7 to 299.7 K
Solubility in water
Miscible
Solubility in ethanol Miscible
Vapor pressure 630 mmHg (20 °C)
Henry's law
constant (kH)
75 μmol Pa−1 kg−1
Acidity (pKa) 9.21
Basicity (pKb) 4.79 (cyanide anion)
Refractive index (nD)
1.2675
Viscosity 201 μPa s
Structure
Point group
C∞v
Molecular shape
Linear
Dipole moment
2.98 D
Thermochemistry
Specific
heat capacity (C)
71.00 kJ K−1 mol−1 (at 27 °C)
Std molar
entropy (So298)
113.01 J K−1 mol−1
Std enthalpy of
formation (ΔfHo298)
109.9 kJ mol−1
Std enthalpy of
combustion (ΔcHo298)
-426.5 kJ mol−1
Hazards
GHS pictograms The flame pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The skull-and-crossbones pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The health hazard pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word DANGER
GHS hazard statements
H225, H319, H336
GHS precautionary statements
P210, P261, P305+351+338
NFPA 704
Flammability code 4: Will rapidly or completely vaporize at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature, or is readily dispersed in air and will burn readily. Flash point below 23 °C (73 °F). E.g., propane Health code 4: Very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury. E.g., VX gas Reactivity code 2: Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water. E.g., phosphorus Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
4
4
2
Flash point −17.8 °C (0.0 °F; 255.3 K)
Autoignition
temperature
538 °C (1,000 °F; 811 K)
Explosive limits 5.6% – 40.0%
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
LC50 (median concentration)
501 ppm (rat, 5 min)
323 ppm (mouse, 5 min)
275 ppm (rat, 15 min)
170 ppm (rat, 30 min)
160 ppm (rat, 30 min)
323 ppm (rat, 5 min)
LCLo (lowest published)
200 ppm (mammal, 5 min)
36 ppm (mammal, 2 hr)
107 ppm (human, 10 min)
759 ppm (rabbit, 1 min)
759 ppm (cat, 1 min)
357 ppm (human, 2 min)
179 ppm (human, 1 hr)
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 10 ppm (11 mg/m3) [skin]
REL (Recommended)
ST 4.7 ppm (5 mg/m3) [skin]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
50 ppm
Related compounds
Related alkanenitriles
  • Hydrogen isocyanide
  • Isocyanic acid
  • Thiocyanic acid
  • Cyanogen iodide
  • Cyanogen bromide
  • Cyanogen chloride
  • Cyanogen fluoride
  • Acetonitrile
  • Aminoacetonitrile
  • Glycolonitrile
  • Cyanogen
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Gambaran keseluruhan

Hidrogen sianida ( HCN ), kadang-kadang dipanggil asid prussik , adalah sebatian kimia dengan formula kimia HCN. Ia adalah cecair tidak berwarna, sangat beracun dan mudah terbakar yang mendidih sedikit di atas suhu bilik, pada suhu 25.6 ° C (78.1 ° F). HCN dihasilkan pada skala perindustrian dan merupakan pendahulu yang sangat berharga kepada banyak sebatian kimia dari polimer ke farmaseutikal.
Alkane, hidrokarbon parafinik juga. Adakah jenis rantaian alifatik hidrokarbon jenuh diwakili oleh rumus umum C (/ n) H 2 (/ n) (/ +) 2 dan tidak termasuk mereka yang mempunyai struktur kitaran. Metana (n = 1), etana (n = 2), propana (n = 3), butana (n = 4) dan sebagainya. Mereka yang mempunyai n = 1 hingga 3 adalah setiap jenis, tetapi mereka yang mempunyai n = 4 atau lebih mempunyai isomer. Suhu bilik berat molekul yang rendah, tetapi gas pada tekanan normal, C 5 -C 1 5 banyak cecair yang lebih tinggi lagi pepejal. Ia tidak baik dalam reaktif, tetapi mengalami tindak balas seperti halogenasi, dan ia mudah terbakar. Komponen utama petroleum.
Bahan berkaitan Hidrokarbon